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Poorly Hen

mike the bikemike the bike Junior Member
edited October 2006 in Poultry Health and Welfare
Hi can anyone help me diagnose what is wrong with one of my hens , symptoms as follows
1. diarrhea (with obvious discomfort when going).
2. sneezing/wheeze

she is eating and drinking o.k and there have been no new additions to the flock. Anyone have any idea your thoughts much appreciated.

Mike.

Comments

  • SandySandy Senior Member
    edited October 2006
    How old is the bird

    How long has she been like this

    What color was her droppings before it went to water

    What color are her droppings now..

    Is there any mustard or yellow color doppings in any of your other birds

    How many other birds do you have

    Have you isolated the sick bird or left her in with the rest of the flock

    Does she have any swelling of the face area.. eyes.. sinuses.. ears

    Has she been drinking an excessive amount of water

    What do you feed her ... everything pls

    ***

    Could possibly be CRD..

    Chronic Respiratory Infection

    Or

    it could be that she has Coccidiosis and the respiratory infection is a secondary illness hitting her so you would need two medications.. one for the Coccidiosis... and one for the Respiratory infection

    Or.

    she may be allergic to something in or around or being fed
  • mike the bikemike the bike Junior Member
    edited October 2006
    Hi Sandy in answer to your questions
    1. under 2 years
    2.yellowy /brown
    3. mustardy
    4. yes
    5.5
    6.still with flock
    7.nothing visible
    8.yes
    9.layer pellets/mixed corn and vegatable peelings. MIKE
  • SandySandy Senior Member
    edited October 2006
    Thank you for answering my questions.. really makes it a lot easier to help people when I have something to work with

    If these were my birds Mike.. this is what I would do

    Get some Coccoidosis medication.. if your live in the US.. easy to get at your feed store

    Also get some Tylan water soluable .. easy to get as above

    All your birds are affected at different stages by the sounds of things.. so you will need to treat them all ok

    I will post information in the next couple of posts about Coccidiosis.. and then I will post information about Respiratory infections.. CRD ok.. download and copy ... take note of the meds suggested

    I use Sulphaquinn for Coccidiosis
    I use Tylan 200 injections for any respiratory infections .. be they slight or severe.. hits them on the head real quick

    REMEMBER... ANTIBOTICS DON'T CURE COCCIDIOSIS... so if anybody tell you that you only need the one medication like the Tylan... don't listen to them ok.. you need both

    Follow the directions to the letter ... don't over medicate and don;t under medicate.. both are bad for the birds immune system

    Let me know how you go
  • SandySandy Senior Member
    edited October 2006
    Coccidiosis Treatment


    There are many forms of Coccidiosis, but two main ones are treated, these are Cecal and Intestinal
    Coccidiosis in chickens is caused by seven different species of coccidia (genus Eimeria), which are single celled parasites that live in the gut wall of their host. These coccidia are host specific: turkeys and other species are not infected by fowl coccidia and vice-versa. The different species of coccidia live in different parts of the gut and can be divided into those causing intestinal coccidiosis (the majority) or caecal coccidiosis (one species).

    Coccidiosis Cecal Symptoms

    In chicks or young birds, droopiness, huddling with ruffled feathers, loss of appetite, retarded growth, and bloody diarrhoea in early stages
    It affects their ce***
    Mortality is high
    Spread from contact with droppings of infected birds. Spread on used equipment, feed sacks, feet o humans and wild birds
    An important symptom is blood around the vent or bloody diarrhea
    Unfortunately, many different diseases of chickens show identical symptoms which makes accurate diagnosis very difficult

    Coccidiosis Intestinal Symptoms

    Affects growing or semi mature birds, droopiness, huddling with ruffled feathers, loss in interest in water and feed, retarded growth or weight loss, watery, moucousy, or pasty, tan or blood tinged diarrrhea, sometimes emaciation and dehydration
    In mature birds; thin breast, weak legs, drop in laying, sometimes diarrrhea
    If affects their intestinal tract
    Mortality is limited to high
    Spread from droppings of infected birds; spread on used equipment, feed sacks feet of humans and wild birds
    An important symptom is blood around the vent or bloody diarrhea
    Unfortunately, many different diseases of chickens show identical symptoms which makes accurate diagnosis very difficult

    Treatment:
    1-teaspoon amprolium (20 percent) per gallon drinking water for 5 days (this is not an antibiotic)
    Also a broad spectrum antibiotic to guard against secondary infections, ask your vet what they have available
    Following this treatment, give multi vitamin supplement (especially A and K)
    Survivors are immune by may never be as productive as uninfected birds

    Spread of the disease

    Damp or contaminated litter and overcrowding favour its development.
    Most commercial chick starters contain a drug that inhibits coccidiosis, however if a clean, dry environment is not maintained then disease can occur. Birds fed diets without preventative drugs are particularly at risk so clean dry litter and adequate space are especially important
    If you have soil in your coop it would be advisable to turn it, but don’t allow dust to blow everywhere, as this will spread the disease, if you sprinkle hydrated lime into the soil it will help to eradicated the problem… make sure no lumps are on the floor, use a flour sifter to apply it and then rake it into the dirt

    Coccidiosis is spread when one bird eats faecal material from an infected bird, which contains the infective stage of the coccidia (small egg-like bodies called oocysts). The oocysts in the droppings need moisture and warmth to mature before they can infect other birds, but in the right conditions, can do so very quickly (24 hr). Oocysts can remain alive in poultry sheds for more than a year and they are very resistant to most disinfectants.

    Oocysts are ingested when birds scratch and peck at the litter or consume contaminated feed or water. Each oocyst breaks down in the gut to release eight organisms that invade the lining of the gut. They then multiply through several cycles to produce thousands of parasites, damaging the gut and causing disease that may lead to the fowl's death.

    Beginning five to seven days after infection, thousands of oocysts pass out in the droppings of the bird to continue the life cycle. It is impossible to prevent this spread unless birds are housed so that they have no contact with faeces.

    Antibiotics don’t cure Coccidiosis, but it will help to eliminate the possibility of a secondary infection taking hold of your bird, and it is sometimes the secondary infections that end up killing the bird

    These are some of the drugs you can use to treat Coccidiosis; it is not a complete list but will give you some ideas on what to ask for at the store when purchasing the medication

    Coccidiosis Medication Names
    Amprolium Soluble (Thiamine derivates)
    Baycox (Toltrazuril)
    Corid (Amprolium)
    Coxytrol (Sulpha drugs}
    Sulfamethazine
    Sulfaquin, (Sulpha drugs}
    Amprolium (Corid)
    Sulmet
    Tribrissen (UK)
    Sulfaquinoxaline or Sulfamethazine - water or feed; less safe; somewhat toxic to bone marrow. Withdrawal - 10 days
    Whitsyn
    Renosal Tablets
    Bactrim

    These drugs, under their trade names are readily available
    However, dose rates are variable and complex
    Most go into the drinking water
    The best advice on treatment is to follow the manufacturer’s recommendations and if in doubt contact the Department of Agriculture
    Baycox is expensive and usually considered to be the last resort used only with severe cases
    The program must be followed carefully to obtain the correct results
    If you give your birds too much, you will kill any immunity they have obtained

    Here are two antibiotics you can use safely with the Coccidia treatment

    Bacitracin (antibiotic) in drinking water at the rate of ½ gram per gallon for 4 days, combined with Amprolium to control the coccidia; vitamin supplement following treatment hastens recovery

    And

    Tetracycline (antibiotic) for 10 days and Amprol = 5 days Amprolium

    It may also be a good idea to incorporate yoghurt into their diet (1 to 2 tablespoons per day mixed with their feed) , as any antibiotic causes diarrrhea, and the yoghurt helps the natural flora and fauna to return the bowel to normal stopping or decreasing the diarrrhea effect of the antibiotics

    All of the Coccidiosis medications thin the blood of the chickens, this is why it is always a good idea to follow up the treatment with a multi vitamin, especially vitamins A and K, A is to rebuild the birds immune system, and K to thicken up the blood after the medication

    Secondary infections can be just as deadly as the Coccidiosis infection
    Coccidiosis and Necrotic Enteritis

    Bacitracin (antibiotic) in drinking water at the rate of ½ gram per gallon for 4 days, combined with Amprolium to control the coccidia; vitamin supplement following treatment hastens recovery

    Coccidiosis and Infectious Anemia

    Avoid all coccidiostat’s; which increase the diseases severity, treatment with antibiotics or Sulfa drugs may worsen the disease
    Treat with multi vitamins and electrolytes… include trace minerals and vitamins B and K to help with recovery

    Coccidiosis can be confused with similar diseases such as blackhead, salmonellosis and necrotic enteritis.

    Information on Vitamins
    Vitamins supplements A and K, the A helps them with vision, growth, bone development, resistance to disease and parasites, the K helps them with normal blood clotting, this is very necessary after taking any medication for coccidiosis, as it tends to thin out their blood and they can and so suffer from bleeding if repeated dosing of the medication is given, or over dosing

    Give electrolytes a couple of weeks after the Coccidiosis treatment, it will help them to perk up, as the electrolytes contain thiamine, and if you administer Amprol to get rid of the cocci it will not work successfully due to thiamine in the mixture, so just to be on the safe side it may be best to give them this at a later date

    Coccidiosis will return in your birds, you are only eliminating one strain of this disease, there are around 32 different strains, 8 that attack on a regular basis, so your birds may get over this attack and become immune to that particular strain, but they may have another strain attack them that they have not built up an immunity to, be alert

    I use my eggs to feed back to my birds, mixing 2 eggs with their dry food every day, this way I don’t waste them, the amount of medication in the eggs is so minimal that once it has been re distributed and broken down it is basically non existent
    But some people are against this and recommend you discard all eggs during treatment, as they are worried about the residual medication still in the egg

    I would not eat these eggs or sell them, but I would use them
    So the end decision will be up to you

    Natural help

    If they look to be in pain you could give them some chamomile leaves to ease their tummies... Not very many maybe a 1-tablespoon mixed into their feed (this amount will treat 15 birds)


    Also feed some garlic and alfalfa sprouts
    The garlic will make the antibiotic more effective and the alfalfa (cold) will help to keep their strength up

    …..

    http://www.sp.uconn.edu
    COCCIDIOSIS - Very common disease.
    Pale birds; bloody droppings; ruffled feathers; deaths.
    One celled parasite - coccidia - 9 species.
    Host specific; immunity specific.
    Coccidia - need moisture, O2, and temperature.
    Prevent by keeping birds dry; feed 0.0125% Amprol continuously to 8 weeks of age.
    Amprol @ 1/3 oz. Powder/gallon water 10-14 days for treatment
  • SandySandy Senior Member
    edited October 2006
    Chronic Respiratory Disease (CRD)

    Is a common, chronic, lingering disease.
    Symptoms include a nasal discharge, coughing and sometimes a swollen sinus below the eye. Infection can occur via the egg or from bird to bird.
    Good hygiene and veterinary prescribed antibiotics can control the problem.
    Reference:By officers of DPI's Animal and Plant Health service

    Shows as flu-like symptoms and is often caused by a number of different bacteria.
    It is found where birds are overcrowded in cold, drafty conditions.
    Antibiotics are used to clear up this problem.
    Reference: http://www.msstate.edu/dept/poultry/dissymp.htm

    Chronic Respiratory Disease Information


    Also called:
    CRD, MG, PPLO (pleuropneumonialike organism), stress disease (one form of mycoplasmosis) (the same disease in turkeys is called “infectious sinusitis”)

    Incidence:
    Common worldwide

    System/Organs affected:
    Respiratory, sometimes entire body

    Progression:
    Chronic, spreads slowly, last longer in cold weather

    Symptoms:
    In broilers, 3 to 8 weeks old: drop in feed consumption, slow growth
    In growing or mature birds, no symptoms or droopiness, coughing, sneezing, rattling, gurgling, swollen face, nasal discharge, ruffled feathers, frothy eyes, squawky crow, drop in laying, sometimes darkened head, loss of appetite, weight loss, yellowish droppings

    Percentage affected:
    Nearly 100 percent of your flock can be affected by this

    Mortality:
    Usually low, except in young birds

    Incubation period
    5 to 21 days

    Postmortem findings:
    Thick mucus in nasal passages and throat; cheesy material in air sacs; thickened heart sac; transparent film coving heart

    Similar diseases
    Coryza
    Cholera
    Newcastle disease
    Infectious bronchitis
    Infectious laryngotracheitis
    Fowl cholera

    Cause:
    Mycoplasma Gallisepti*** bacteria, often aided by Escherichia coli and / or a reovirus; often seen in combination with cholera, infectious bronchitis, infectious coryza, Newcastle, often follows vaccination for infectious bronchitis or Newcastle

    Transmission:
    Contagious; contact with infected or carrier birds and their respiratory discharges; inhaling contaminated dust; spread from breeders through hatching eggs; spreads on shoes, crates, etc

    Prevention:
    Purchase mycoplasma free stock; minimize stress due to sudden weather changes, feed changes, drafts, chilling crowding, transporting, showing, worming, vaccinating dust and ammonia fumes, vaccinate
    After an outbreak clean and disinfect housing and leave empty for a few weeks

    Treatment:
    Antibiotics – Terramycin or Tylosin (Tylan), or erythromycin (Gallimycin) will help to treat the C.R.D

    It has been found that an injection of Tylan 200 - 0.5 ml in the breast muscle, and a follow up injection 48 hrs later gives excellent results

    Some people give the dosages below, it will be up to you to make the call as to how much you give you bird, as to how severe the problem is
    For a bantam hen give between 0.1-0.2.ml .
    For a larger fowl give between 0.2-0.3 just depends on its weight

    The dose for a turkey is the same as a chicken (for Tylan).
    Between 30-35 mg/kg, two to three times per day depending on severity.
    The Tylan injectable can be given orally but it isn’t as effective as when you give it by injection.
    If you can't get Tylan, see if you can get lincospectin (30-60 mg/kg, once a day, subcutaneously). Baytril will also work (available through your vet) at a dose of 10-15 mg/kg.
    Any of the tetracycline drugs will help but they are not as effective as the others (and Baytril does tend to cause crop problems).

    And if this disease has a hold the water soluble medications are useless


    Looloo/Australia
    “Tylan 200 injections are the only way to go with this...I use it regularly when I have to...you must get it from the veterinarians and he will give you several needle sharps and a plastic syringe...He will tell you the correct amounts as it can differ depending on the weight of your birds...I have bantams and leghorns. When a bantam needs the Tylan I administer between 0.1-0.2 mg for a hen for a bantam roo I give between 0.2-0.3 mg...Sounds like your chooks are bigger than bantams so it would be better to give them a higher dose...this is where the vet will help....”

    Crazychick/Laura/Canada
    CRD can be controlled using Tylan and, if your bird has a serious case of it, Tylan in combination with Amicaycin (amiglyde). Although there are two trains of thoughts, both accepted by vets and poultry owners alike, I like the following dosage and schedule for dosing of Tylan: In birds that have less acute symptoms, such as rattling, sneezing, mild lethargy but no real loss of appetite, I give Tylan twice a day (morning and night) at a dose of 35 mg/kg. Tylan lasts in the system for 8 hours and then its useful life is over. You can give 35 mg/kg three times a day in acute cases (rattling, struggling to breathe, wheezing, loss of appetite) and it can be given in combination with Amicaycin - Amicaycin is a powerful antibiotic usually given to large animals, so dose it carefully. It should be given subcutaneous at a dose of 250 mg/kg, once a day. If you are having repeated recurrences of CRD in your flock, giving two shots only, spaced apart, may be leading to resistance to that antibiotic in your birds. Another good drug is Baytril, available thru your vet, and can be given twice a day at a dose of 15 mg/kg. Both Tylan injectable and Baytril injectable can be given orally, if care is taken not to get it in their lungs. I give it half a cc at a time when they are exhaling mixed with baby food to lessen the taste as it is quite bitter, lessening the chances of inhalation. Baytril can and will cause a yeast infection in the crop of the bird if given for an extended period of time (over 10 days) and so should be given in combination with nystatin antifungal if given for longer than that. Tylan doesn't typically cause yeast infections but, as Sandy mentioned, give yoghurt at the same time to keep the gut bacteria happy.

    Laura/Crazychick
    Just to help with the math, as well... If you have, say, a 1.3 kg bird and you want to know how much tylan to give it at a dose of 35 mg/kg. You know that you need to multiply 35 mg x 1.3 as this is the weight (in kg) of the bird. This tells you that your bird needs (35mg/kg x 1.3kg = 45.5 mg). Now you know how many mg you bird needs, but how much tylan is that? Well, if there's 200 mg/ml in tylan 200, then (you can use cross-multiplication too for this) divide 200 mg/ml into 45.5 mg to tell you how many ml you need. 45.5 mg / 200 mg/ml = .2275 ml which is 0.23 cc or 23 units. On a 1 cc syringe, it is very easy to measure out 23 units of tylan. Then you would give this orally, three times per day. I suggest orally, because poking your chicken in the breast muscle three times per day can damage the muscle and cause bruising etc. If you draw up the drug, ALWAYS use a sterile syringe and needle and don't use the same syringe to draw it up as the one you use to squirt it into their mouths - I prefer to mix the drugs with babyfood to help it taste a little better.

    Hopefully the above math is easy enough to figure out. Remember- just figure out how many mg of drug the bird needs, then figure out how many ml of the drug they need (at the drug's concentration) to properly dose them.

    Laura


    I insert the needle in the fatty part of the upper breast area avoiding the crop (food sack)...just feel for this muscle area and insert the needle into this muscle about 1 cm. This stuff is fast acting so do them immediately or you will loose the lot...Tylan 200 injectable costs around $40 a bottle in Australia.

    Good hygiene and veterinary prescribed antibiotics can control the problem
    There are several antibiotics when, given in large enough doses, will help control the disease and minimise secondary bacterial complications, although they usually do not control the disease completely

    Survivors are carriers

    Pullets reared in isolation can be vaccinated to prevent infection with Mycoplasma gallisepti***
    It is found where birds are overcrowded in cold, drafty conditions
    If your bird has been treated for over two weeks and no there is no bloody discharge, it would probably not be ILT or CRD, but more than likely secondary bacterial infections have set in

    If you have been giving your bird antibiotics, and there has been no change in the birds condition, you might have to look at micro-abscesses or necrosis in lungs or congestive heart failure

    If this is the case you will have to get out the big guns in the antibiotics
    Baytril at 15mg.kg twice a day, then try Tylan injectable (only available through a vet) it boosts the effectiveness of the Tylan and is given subcutaneously once a day
    Lincospectin injectable is another

    Human health risk:
    None known
  • SandySandy Senior Member
    edited October 2006
    Explanation about CARRIERS

    Contributed by:- Crazychick/Laura – http://happyhenhouse.proboards43.com
    To ease your fears about carrier birds, CRD and coryza, just ponder the following.
    Once a bird has had or BEEN EXPOSED TO either disease, they can be lifelong carriers. However, this being said, it doesn't mean that they are going to be constantly spreading the disease to every chicken in your flock, every day for the rest of their lives.

    In times of stress (moulting, sick with another disease, introduction of new flock members...) the carrier chickens can shed the bacteria and cause problems.

    But, if you can keep the stress levels down, introduce new flock members slowly (with a quarantine period) and boost their nutrition during moulting, you will lessen the shedding of bacteria. Both diseases are very common, CRD is especially common.

    Many birds will develop resistance to these diseases and never show a single symptom - they are still carriers.

    If you have a flock that has resistance to the diseases and new flock members are allowed to develop the same resistance through gradual exposure, your flock should be fine.

    CRD is passed from a sick hen through the egg to the chick (in some cases, not all) and treating the chicks with Tylan upon hatching is not a bad idea.
    It gives them a boost until they can develop their own resistance.

    Coryza is not passed through the egg to the chick.

    But if you are concerned about any hatching chick, I'd treat it with Tylan when it hatches...
  • mike the bikemike the bike Junior Member
    edited October 2006
    Thanks Sandy will let you know how i get on
    Mike.
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